Effect of acute injection of norharmane on learning and spatial memory in rats

AUTHORS

Mohammad Hossein Esmaeili 1 , * , Hashem Haghdost 1 , Mohammad Sofiabadi 1 , Aida Lotfi 1 , Mahshid Najafi 1 , Mona Hasani 2 , Maryam Ashoreh Aghababaei 2 , Robabeh Amani Gorgi 2 , Fatemeh Mosavi 3

1 Dept. of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

2 Dept. of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

3 Dept. of Anesthesia Technology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

How to Cite: Esmaeili M H, Haghdost H, Sofiabadi M, Lotfi A, Najafi M, et al. Effect of acute injection of norharmane on learning and spatial memory in rats, J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2014 ; 18(8):e74036. doi: 10.22110/jkums.v18i8.2079.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: 18 (8); e74036
Published Online: November 29, 2014
Article Type: Original Article
Received: September 01, 2014
Accepted: November 18, 2014
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Abstract

Background: Although endogenous and exogenous β-Carbolines, which have been found in blood and tobacco, have neurotoxic effects, , some of these compounds have been shown to have a stimulating effect on the dopaminergic system and to increase dopamine levels in hippocampus, leading to  memory improvement. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of acute injection of norharmane as a benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist on learning and spatial memory in water maze.

Methods: 40 female and 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 gr) were divided into 5 groups: control, ethanol and norharmane (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). Norharmane and ethanol groups respectively received norharmane and ethanol (0.2ml) intraperitoneally on the 5th day 30 min before the test and on the 8th day 30 min before the probe test. All rats were examined in terms of learning and spatial memory in the water maze.

Results: The results showed that acute injection of norharmane in both males and females improved learning and spatial memory in low doses (1, 2 mg/kg, i.p.) but attenuated learning and spatial memory retention in high doses (4 mg/kg, i.p.).

Conclusion: According to the findings, the effects of norharmane on learning and spatial memory were dose-dependent not sex-dependent. Although norharmane is useful for learning and memory at low doses, it can impair learning and memory in high doses.

Keywords

β-Carboline norharmane learning spatial memory

© 2014, Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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