Effectiveness of simultaneous rhythmic breathing and Z – track method in prone position with foot internal rotation on the pain associated with intramuscular injection

AUTHORS

Mohammad Fathi 1 , Shahriar Mahmoodi 1 , Fazlollah Ahmadi 2 , Eisa Mohammadi 2 , Mokhtar Yaghobi 1 , *

1 Dept. of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Science, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Dept. of Nursing, School of Medicine, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran

How to Cite: Fathi M, Mahmoodi S, Ahmadi F, Mohammadi E, Yaghobi M. Effectiveness of simultaneous rhythmic breathing and Z – track method in prone position with foot internal rotation on the pain associated with intramuscular injection, J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2009 ; 13(2):e79798.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: 13 (2); e79798
Published Online: September 19, 2009
Article Type: Research Article
Received: January 03, 2009
Accepted: June 16, 2009

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Abstract

Background: Intramuscular injection is one of the effective methods of drug administration. Yet the procedure is painful and avoided if at all possible. This study examines the effectiveness of simultaneous rhythmic breathing and Z – track method in prone position with foot internal rotation on reducing the pain of intramuscular injection.

Methods: This quasi experimental (before and after) study included 100 patients who had intramuscular injection of Metocarbamol. Standard method was evaluated against the combination of rhythmic breathing and Z – track method in prone position with foot internal rotation. Pain intensity was measured before and after intervention using visual analog scale. Descriptive statistic was used for demographic information. Means were compared on paired T-test.

Results: While before the intervention, 57% and 43% of the patients had severe and very severe pain respectively, after the intervention 24% of the patients experienced a mild pain with 67% reporting a moderate one. In addition, a statically significant difference was observed between the pain intensity means before and after intervention (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Based on the results, simultaneous rhythmic breathing and Z – track method in prone position with foot internal rotation could reduce the pain associated with intramuscular injection of Metacarbamol.                     

Keywords

intramuscular injection rhythmic breathing Z– track pain prone position

© 2009, Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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